Factors affecting soil temperature as limits of spatial interpretation and simulation of soil temperature
Received: May 6, 2014
Accepted: June 2, 2014
Soil temperature influences the course of many important processes across the landscape. Nevertheless, the studies performed of it so far have made only small progress in the field of soil physics, as well as in climate studies. This paper systematically summarises the hitherto vaguely arranged pieces of knowledge on the factors affecting the soil temperature and related approaches to spatial interpretation and simulation of soil temperature. Subsequently, two main problems limiting the development of the scientific study of soil temperature have been identified: 1) methodological inconsistencies in the study of soil temperature and factors affecting soil temperature and 2) the low density of points with a representative measurement of soil temperature. Because of the high spatial heterogeneity and the complexity of the relationships of the factors influencing soil temperature, any further studies of soil temperatures must develop in a methodically coherent manner. To achieve this, it seems appropriate to use the concept of elementary process-oriented geo-systems.
soil temperature, field heterogeneity, soil modelling
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The hydrological consequences of urbanisation: Lublin case study (Poland)
Zdzisław Michalczyk, Stanisław Chmiel, Sławomir Głowacki, Joanna Sposób
Received: May 17, 2014
Accepted: June 22, 2014
The paper presents the consequences of changes in water management in Lublin (Poland). The area’s urban development and specific water management conditions (the concentration of large groundwater intakes in a relatively small area) have caused changes in the volume of groundwater resources, and a transformation of the hydraulic connection of groundwater with surface water. Anthropogenic changes in the discharge of rivers can also be observed. This concerns the Bystrzyca River and its tributaries: the Czechówka and Czerniejówka Rivers. The changes are particularly evident in the lower section of the catchment, within the depression cone. The natural regime of the Bystrzyca River is affected by the discharge of sewage water from the sewage treatment plant in Hajdów, and by surface runoff from the urban area. In periods without surface runoff, daily changes in the discharge from the Bystrzyca River are predominantly due to the disposal of post-sewage waters from the sewage treatment plant. The supply is determined by the daily rhythm of the functions of Lublin’s inhabitants. Successive growth of weakly permeable surfaces in the city causes fast and increasing precipitation water runoff, particularly following intensive precipitation events and snowmelt. This results in a rapid increase in water stages in the Bystrzyca River below Lublin.
Lublin, urban hydrology, surface runoff, urban floods
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Specific aspects of the quality of life of the Roma ethnic group in selected areas under study in the east of the Slovak Republic
Eva Michaeli, Monika Ivanová, Vladimír Solár
Received: May 26, 2014
Accepted: June 23, 2014
According to the relevant estimates, there are around 1.5 million Roma in western Europe and more than 3 million in eastern Europe. The Roma in Europe are concentrated in two areas. Two minor Roma concentrations are located in south-western Europe, in Spain and France. The largest number of Roma are located in central and eastern Europe (Matlovič and Michaeli 2004; Matlovič 2005), where the concentration belt spreads from the Czech Republic (300,000) across the Slovak Republic (430,000), Hungary, Bulgaria (1.6 mil.), part of Ukraine, Romania (2.5 mil.), Macedonia and Croatia (500,000). In most European countries the Roma have adopted a settled way of life. Nomadic groups only exist in Spain, France, Great Britain and the Balkan Peninsula.
the Roma, quality of life, Slovak Republic
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