Volume 44, Number 1

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Ethno-demographic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1971–1991 and its propensity for ethnic conflict

Ondřej Žíla

Received: January 7, 2013
Accepted: June 20, 2013                                                                                                        

pp. 5–25

Different population dynamics of the three main nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the era of Yugoslav federation raised uncertainty and tensions in this socialist republic. The differences in the demographic development of Muslims, Serbs and Croats began to clearly manifest especially during the years 1971–1991. These demographic changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina in this period are important to perceive as some of the crucial elements which, together with some other negative factors (primarily the economic decline, paralysis of the federal government, mounting political tensions and nationalism) during the 1980s, were the cause for the interethnic tension to build up. Due to the consequences of different population dynamics we tried to identify the regions where the representation of individual nations was transformed. Such regions, during the monitored period, registered increasing interethnic rivalry. In these regions it is possible to apply the so called Ethnic Competition Theory. The moment the diverse demographic dynamics distinctly increase ethnic tensions, and cause mutual conflicts in the monitored area to escalate it is possible to quantify the rate of this ethnic rivalry in a specific region with the help of recorded changes of local numerical representation of individual ethnic groups. With the use of three selected indicators (index of ethnic competition, index of demographic disadvantage and relative growth rate) we can measure susceptibility to conflict. This quantitative analysis of the ethnic structure and population growth should partially clarify reasons for the subsequent ethnic cleansing in the specific regions during the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Key words
Bosnia and Herzegovina, ethno-demographic development, ethnic competition theory, measuring demographic interaction, scenarios of demographic dynamics

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Contribution of population processes to population ageing: a comparison of the Czech and Slovak Republics

Marcela Káčerová, Jana Ondačková, Jozef Mládek

Received: February 27, 2013
Accepted: May 28, 2013                                                                                                    

pp. 27–43

The population ageing processes become a topical issue in contemporary stage of the population development. In terms of demographic research, the problem of socio-economic implications of this process seems to be as much important as the theoretical background of its formation. The main goal of this article is to point out population ageing development trends and the mechanism of the main demographic processes effect. From the variety of methods and techniques, we have chosen those, which permit identification of the contribution, accession of fertility, mortality, in-migration and out-migration on age structures changes. These processes represent inputs and outputs of the population and this way influence its age structure (ageing or rejuvenation). We attempted to identify the ageing processes in Czech Republic and Slovak Republic in the last 30 years.

Key words
Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, population ageing, age structure, comparative projections, population processes.

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Functional regions of the Czech Republic: comparison of simpler and more advanced methods of regional taxonomy

Pavel Klapka, Marián Halás, Petr Tonev, Marek Bednář

Received: February 28, 2013
Accepted: June 20, 2013                                                                                                      

pp. 45–57

The article compares the results of three simpler methods of functional regional taxonomy to the results of the more advanced methods. All methods use daily travel-to-work flows provided by the 2001 census as a regionalisation criterion. Simpler methods rest in the application of primary-flow linkage in order to assign a basic spatial zone to a potential regional core, while more advanced method applies a relativised linkage measure that also takes into account a reverse flow between a pair of basic spatial zones. For comparisons the more advanced method approximates the size parameter used in simpler methods, which is however put into relation to a self-containment of a regional class. The article provides three comparisons of results and identifies main advantages and disadvantages of the two methodological approaches, concluding that the more advanced method provides geographically more relevant results.

Key words
regional taxonomy, regionalization algorithm, functional regions, travel-to-work flows, Czech Republic

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Reconstruction of extinct ponds using old maps, historical cadastres and the Digital Terrain Model of the Czech Republic of the 5th Generation

Jindřich Frajer, Petr Kladivo, Jan Geletič

Received: May 2, 2013
Accepted: June 12, 2013                                                                                                      

pp. 59–69

Research of ponds in the Czech environment has a long tradition. In the past, nearly 76,000 ponds were scattered in the Czech landscape, with an area of approximately 160,000 hectares, two thirds of which were drained during the 18th and 19th century. This study compares possibilities to reconstruct location of extinct ponds that were drained before the creation of maps based on precise geodetic base and whose spatial form (position, size, shape of the shoreline) has so far remained unclear. Individual methods of reconstruction are statisticaly tested on 12 extinct ponds in the upper reaches of the Klejnárka river and use a combination of historical maps, historical aerial photographs and digital terrain model in the environment of geoinformation system as well as archived data of the Josephinian Cadastre (1787).

Key words
historical landscape, ponds, old maps, airborne scanner, Josephinian Cadastre, Klejnárka river

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